Linux and Unix


Known as a a shebang or a bang line, this is just the characters at the very start of a Linux script. It is simply a hash or number sign followed by an exclamation point character (#!). This is then followed by the full path to the interpreter, for example /bin/bash Think of it as … READ MORE

What is a shebang in Linux?

If you need to execute a shell script and can’t get your head around the conflicting information out there, I’ll try to clear things up. There are quite a few ways to execute a shell script and each has its pros and cons. If you are coming from a Windows environment where the file extension … READ MORE

Four ways to execute a shell script

If you need to install the excellent mod_geoip2 extension for Apache2 then it can be done fairly painlessly. First off, we need to make sure that we have gcc installed:

  If you don’t have it then you could ‘yum install gcc’, but I prefer to install all development tools because they include gcc … READ MORE

Install mod_GeoIP2 on Apache2 in CentOS 7

  If you’re looking through WHM’s process manager and you see [email protected] mentioned as one of the processes, don’t be alarmed. It’s perfectly normal and it’s definitely not some hacker called ‘Notty’ who has suddenly got root permissions. Be honest, you’re here because you thought that 😉 You may also have seen sshd: [email protected] in … READ MORE

Who or what is root@notty?

Yes, you can use a Linux boot CD to repair a Windows NTFS disk fault. Linux ships with a utility called badblocks. Badblocks is a Linux command in its own right that has several different modes to be able to detect bad sectors on our hard disk. Once found, it saves the references to these … READ MORE

Use linux boot disk to repair a Windows NTFS disk fault

Her’s a list of useful country codes that we can use in many rule-based filtering situations on servers. AD Andorra AE United Arab Emirates AF Afghanistan AG Antigua and Barbuda AI Anguilla AL Albania AM Armenia AN Netherlands Antilles AO Angola AQ Antarctica AR Argentina AS American Samoa AT Austria AU Australia AW Aruba AZ … READ MORE

Country codes for mod_security, CSF and htaccess

  This article tries to explain, using my own experience of server management, how to scan a Linux server for viruses and malware.   You are probably here because you have something on your server already, very often pushing out spam emails to people via php files. Or maybe you have fallen victim to the … READ MORE

Scan a Linux server for viruses and malware

In this series of articles I am trying to help server admins and owners of VPS or Dedicated servers to find viruses or malware on their servers. Part of the diagnosis of your system is to see what emails are being sent out and from which accounts. Since spammers like to use compromised servers, I … READ MORE

Find what emails are being sent from a Linux server